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Approaches to Psychology as a Science


approaches to Psychology as a Science

refer to the study of how a mental process operates. Specific performance goals Reward yourself when goals are reached (self-reinforcement). A counseling psychologist usually works with problems such as those involving marriage, family, or career counseling. He believed that they influence our ideas and what is chivalry or chivalrous behaviour for knights? beliefs in a similar way to memory schemas. Just as a computer processor retrieves data from a disk or the internet, the brain receives input signals: visual input from the eyes, sound from the ears, sensations via nerves, etc. The cognitive approach was described by Ulric Neisser in his 1967 work Cognitive Psychology, and focusses on issues such as the encoding, consolidation and retrieval of memories, emotions, perception, problem-solving and language. Behaviorists look at the behavior a person exhibits, rather than the inner processes of the mind. This is a major departure from the study of the structure of a mental process, the difference between stopping a train to tear it apart to study its parts (structuralism and looking at how the systems interact while it is running (functionalism). General principles of psychology are to enable specialists to investigate human development throughout the lifespan from birth to death, examine mental and physical health, care and treat people who are emotionally distressed.

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Perception is more than the sum of its parts. Skinner (strict behaviorism) Albert Bandura (adds social cognition). Learn more about the evolutionary approach here Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach assumes that each person is born a tabula rasa, or blank slate. Biological factors include genes, inherited from a persons parents, which psychologists believe can influence whether they are predisposed to some conditions. These include the innate drives which we are born with, but remain unconscious.


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Johann Wolfgang von Goeth

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